I would focus on the basic, classic essentials first, and then strategically build on that with fun items from stores like Anthropologie. Focus on items that you can wear both to work and in your 'real' life. That way, you're not buying two wardrobes. For the classics, buy high-quality items that will last. I would make a list and prioritize the items you will need to buy over the next two years - then you will have a game plan for moving forward and be a more focused and purposeful shopper.
...Can you tell I just went through this process myself?
Among what I would consider a classic essential is a black suit. The pieces can be worn as separates, making it crazy versatile - because you have the obligatory interview suit, but also something really wearable that translates into your work and 'real' life. As far as brands, personally I'm a fan of the brand Theory. Their cuts and fabrics are modern, hold up fabulously well, and look super chic.
Another classic is a wrap dress. Diane Von Furstenberg, of course, makes amazing wrap dresses in beautiful fabrics. I would choose solid colors or subtle prints over her more wild options - that way you can use accessories to make it a work or play outfit.
Once you have the essentials, then buy more playful blouses from stores like Anthropologie that you can pair with them. Like, I have some very cute silk tops that are sleeveless or backless that look like work tops with a cardigan or suit jacket over them. Then I wear them without the cardigan/jacket to go to dinner or an evening event. Voila!
I know I put a lot of emphasis on buying high-quality items - I did that, and of course, I think I did the right thing
- but I don't necessarily mean expensive. I shopped secondhand for a lot of my clothes, which allowed me to buy really nice pieces without spending a fortune.